Appendix

Potassium Silicate Research

1)
MANAGEMENT OF POWDERY MILDEW IN SOILLESS TOMATOES BY USING POTASSIUM SILICATE

Authors: Gilardi, G., Garibaldi , A. and Gullino,
Affiliation: Agroinnova - Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-Environmental Sector
University of Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinchi 44, 10095 Grugliasco (To), Italy.
Published in: 2011 Acta Hort. (ISHS) 914:353-356
Subjects: Environmental Studies; Plant Biology
Publishing Country: Italy
Language: Italian

MANAGEMENT OF POWDERY MILDEW IN SOILLESS TOMATOES BY USING POTASSIUM SILICATE .
Gilardi, G., Garibaldi , A. and Gullino, M.L. 2011.
Acta Hort. (ISHS) 914:353-356

Abstract:
Soilless crops may enable the adoption of innovative control methods aimed at changing host susceptibility by modifying the availability of water and nutrients. Varying the electric conductivity (EC) of nutrient solution (NS) as well as the adoption of silicate salt may theoretically vary the susceptibility of the host. This study reports the results of trials carried out against Oidium neolycopersici of tomato by using potassium silicate (K2SiO3) via nutrient solution (100 ppm) and NS concentration (1.8 and 4.0 mS cm-1) delivered drip irrigation. All trials were carried out with artificial inoculation of the pathogen. The results confirm the beneficial effects of potassium silicate as well as of the electric conductivity (EC) of nutrient solution in the control of powdery mildew of tomato. Among the non-conventional strategies effective to limit O. neolycopersici epidemics on tomato, the application of potassium silicate and higher EC through the nutrient solution is a promising technique.

2).
ROLE OF SILICON IN ENHANCING THE RESISTANCE OF PLANTS TO BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESSES

Author; MA J F(Kagawa University, Kagawa, Jpn)
Journal Title; Soil Sci Plant Nutr
Journal Code:F0364A
ISSN:0038-0768
VOL.50;NO.1;PAGE.11-18(2004)
Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.1, REF.56
Pub. Country;Japan
Language;English

Role of Silicon in Enhancing the Resistance of Plants to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Ma Jian Feng 1
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University 2004

Abstract:
Although silicon (Si) has not been recognized as an essential element for plant growth, the beneficial effects of Si have been observed in a wide variety of plant species. The beneficial effects of Si are usually expressed more clearly in Si-accumulating plants under various abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Silicon is effective in controlling various pests and diseases caused by both fungi and bacteria in different plant species. Silicon also exerts alleviative effects on various abiotic stresses including salt stress, metal toxicity, drought stress, radiation damage, nutrient imbalance, high temperature, freezing and so on. These beneficial effects are mainly attributed to the high accumulation of silica on the tissue surface although other mechanisms have also been proposed. To obtain plants resistant to multiple stresses, genetic modification of the root ability to take up Si has been proposed. In this review, the role of Si in conferring resistance to mutiple stresses is described.

3).
EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM SILICATE ON THE GROWTH OF MINIATURE ROSE 'PINOCCHIO' GROWN ON ROCKWOOL AND ITS CUT FLOWER QUALITY

Authors; HWANG SEUNG JAE(Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju, Kor) PARK HAN-MIN(Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju, Kor) JEONG BYOUNG RYONG(Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju, Kor)
Journal Title; Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Journal Code: F0626A
ISSN: 0013-7626
VOL.74;NO.3; PAGE.242-247(2005)
Figure & Table & Reference; FIG.2, TBL.5, REF.16
Publishing Country; Japan
Language; English

Abstract;
The effects of root and foliar applications of potassium silicate on the growth and quality of hydroponically-grown cut flower miniature rose Rosa hybrida 'Pinocchio' were evaluated. In a hydroponic system that uses rockwool slabs as a growing medium, the growth and quality of plants in four treatments, including the control (untreated), root feeding, foliar spray, and root feeding+foliar spray of a 200mg L'-1' potassium silicate solution, were examined. The treatments were laid out in a randomized block design with four replicates per treatment. Four rooted cuttings per treatment started on rockwool cubes were planted on a rockwool slab on Aug. 7, 2000 and grown for 413 days. The mean flower stem length, mean yield by grade, and total yield were significantly greater in the root feeding treatment than in the others; likewise, fresh and dry weights of roots were significantly heavier. Stem diameter, number of branches, dry matter, and shoot fresh and dry weights significantly increased in the root feeding+foliar spray plot as compared to the control. Stem flexibility, measured as the modulus of elasticity was greatest in the root feeding+foliar spray treatment. Photomicrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope showed the formation of a film of glass on the leaf surface in the foliar spray treatment. From these results, we concluded that the applications of potassium silicate proved to have beneficial effects on the growth and quality of cut flower miniature rose 'Pinocchio' in the rockwool culture system. (author abst.)

4).
APPLICATIONS OF POTASSIUM SILICATE DECREASE BLACKSPOT INFECTION IN ROSA HYBRIDA MEIPELTA (FUCHSIA MEIDILAND)

Auteur(s) / Author(s)
GILLMAN Jeffrey H. (1) ; ZLESAK David C. (1) ; SMITH Jason A. (1) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, ETATS-UNIS

Abstract
Roses in nursery and landscape settings are frequently damaged by black spot, whose causal agent is the fungus Diplocarpon rosae F.A. Wolf. Potassium silicate was assessed as a media-applied treatment for decreasing the severity and incidence of black spot infection. Roses were treated with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg.L-1 silicon as potassium silicate incorporated into irrigation water on either a weekly or daily schedule. Five weeks after treatments were initiated, plants were inoculated with D. rosae. Roses began to show visual symptoms of infection 4 days later. Roses that had 150 mg.L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had significantly more silicon present in their leaves than other treatments as measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. In addition, roses that had 100 and 150 mg.L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had fewer black spot lesions per leaf and fewer infected leaves than any of the other treatments by the end of the experiment 7 weeks later. Although roses treated with higher levels of silicon on a daily basis fared better than roses in the other treatments, all of the roses were heavily infected with D. rosae by the end of the study. The results reported here indicate that using potassium silicate in irrigation water may be a useful component of a disease management system.

Revue / Journal Title
HortScience ISSN 0018-5345 CODEN HJHSAR
Source / Source
2003, vol. 38, no6, pp. 1144-1147 [4 page(s) (article)] (20 ref.)
Langue / Language
Anglais
Editeur / Publisher
American Society for Horticultural Science, Alexandria, VA, ETATS-UNIS (1966) (Revue)

5).
THE ADDITION OF POTASSIUM SILICATE TO THE FERTILIZER MIX TO SUPPRESS LIRIOMYZA LEAFMINERS ATTACKING CHRYSANTHEMUMS

Authors: M.P. Parrella, T.P. Costamagna, R. Kaspi: 2007
Department of Entomology
University of California, Davis
USA

Abstract:
Silicon is the second most abundant element in soils, and is essentially the mineral substrate for most of the world's plant life. This material has long been associated with increasing a plant's ability to withstand attack by pests, but data in this area are limited. We examined whether the addition of potassium silicate to potted chrysanthemum plants would reduce development of the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii. A range of silicate concentrations were made on a regular basis for the full duration of a potted chrysanthemum crop, and then individual plants were repeatedly challenged with mated pairs of leafminers in caged studies. At 200 ppm and higher, we observed a significant reduction in leafminers emerging from treated plants vs. the control. These results suggest that the addition of silicon may increase the chrysanthemum's ability to withstand attack by leafminers, and may an additional cultural tool in the IPM arsenal.

6)
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM SILICATE INDUCES METABOLIC CHAGES IN 
STRAWBERRY PLANTS


Authors: S. Y. Wang a; G. J. Galletta a
Affiliation: A Fruit Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD
DOI: 10.1080/01904169809365390
Published in: Journal of Plant Nutrition, Volume 21, Issue 1 January 1998 , pages 157 - 167
Subjects: Environmental Studies; Plant Biology
Publishing Country: USA
Language: English


Abstract
The effect of foliar silicon (Si) applications on metabolic changes in strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was studied. Silicon was used in the form of the potassium (K) salt. Foliar spray with K silicate (containing 0, 4.25, 8.50, 12.75, or 17.00 mm of Si) showed increased chlorophyll content and plant growth. Potassium silicate treatments also induced metabolic changes such as increases in citric acid and malic acid levels, and decreases in fructose, glucose, sucrose, and myo-inositol contents. The treated tissues also had higher ratios of fatty acid unsaturation [(18:2+18:3)/18:1] in glycolipids and phospholipid and elevated amounts of membrane lipids. These results suggest that Si has beneficial effects on strawberry plant metabolism.






APPENDIX B: MATERIAL DATA SHEETS

POTSIL MSDS SHEETS:






 

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